Bakiga were both pastoralists and agriculturalists. They grew sorghum, peas, millet, potatoes, sweet potatoes, vegetables and beans (Grace Carswell, J B Perseglove, M M Edel, Belshaw, Charsley &Katebarirwe). These were supplemented with pumpkins, yams, and a variety of green vegetables (Wikipedia, Karwemera, and Grace Carswell). By the 1930s Matooke had become a formidable crop in the sub counties of Rwamucucu, Bukinda, Kamwezi, Kashambya and Rujumbura County. Livestock included cattle, goats and sheep. Non livestock animals included dogs kept mainly for accompanying people grazing cattle, Home guarding and for hunting purposes. Food was always prepared in abundance. It was good manners (still is?) for a visitor to join a family eating a meal with or without invitation. The Bakiga used to produce beer, omuramba (still do), from sorghum. It could be both food and an alcoholic drink. By the 1930s Rwarwa/ Tonto had joined the Beer ranks in the areas where matooke (Orutookye, the plantation) was grown. To enjoy these drinks, people would sit on wooden stools surrounding a pot, and drink it through long tubes (ebishekye). Some among the Bakiga were great ironsmiths (the Baheesi) who were making hoes, knives, and spears. Pottery was also highly developed (kubumba), and a wide range of carpentry existed (kubaija: amato, ebitebe etc). They reared bees and produced honey. Women were in charge of digging, while men cleared the bush and erected round grass-thatched huts. Nearly all activities were done communally.

Homesteads; A mukiga homestead consisted of a main house or hut, a kitchen, a kraal, sanitation facilities and a series of granaries. All these were enclosed in a strong fence made up of mainly thorny plants like emikwatangwe (plants that restrain leopards). The fence was meant to offer protection against wild animals on livestock, thieves and enemies.

Food Security; The Bakiga attached a lot of importance to the availability of food all the time. At times food would be abundant and at times harvests would be poor due to bad weather. It was the role of the family heads to ensure that food was available in all circumstances. For this reason the Bakiga had structures to store food staffs for long periods. The bigger granaries (Ebitara) were used to store un-threshed food staffs like sorghum, maize and others. The threshed grains and cereals were stored in smaller well smeared granaries (ebihumi).

Seeds for planting; These were given special attention right from the gardens, storage and processing for planting. For example Maize cobs, sorghum and millet fingers meant to be plated would be spotted while still growing in the gardens. At harvesting they could be harvested separately so would be storing. The criterion was: These had to be first maturing, stronger and bigger than the rest, no weevil infestation or pest damage. At the very planting time like all the other seeds they would still undergo a rigorous selection to ensure healthy planting material a process referred to as "kucoka".

The dressing code; Men used to dress in one cow hide or two if they were rich. The skin hung from the shoulder, covering private parts. A man would belt himself for a fight or a dance, while for clearing land one would put it aside and carry out his work without skin and put it on again after finishing his activity. Women used to wear skirts made from several skins and a top. A skin garment covered the torso. The women garments for Special occasions were designed and decorated with ringlets and beads through tiny holes bored along the edges of the skin (Ebishato). Both wealthy men and women would have additional decorational ornaments for the legs and the hands, "The Enyerere for the legs and Emiringa for the hands"

Parenthood preparation; Boys were coached by their fathers and uncles through the men routine. Such included herding cattle, clearing the bushes in preparation for cultivation, hunting, splitting firewood, building houses and others. For mothers to be, Virginity was very important. If an unmarried girl got pregnant, she would be taken to a forest, tied to a tree, and left to the mercy of animals. Alternatively, she would be thrown over a cliff. Hamuhonga at the boundary of Rwamucucu and Kashambya, Kisizi Falls were some of the areas used for this purpose. At Lake Bunyonyi, a special island was used for dumping these unfortunate girls. From here some were salvaged to become second wives or to be wives of some men with limited means of survival usually unable to raise dowry. A marriage needed to be preceded by a payment of bride wealth, which meant cows, goats, and hoes. If a man had enough of these and plenty of land, he could get as many wives as desired: polygamy was a norm (Turyahikayo-Rugyema, Edel). For instance, one of the remnants of the royal clan of the Abungura, Umwami Katamujuna, had ten wives, though, at the coming of Christianity he had to compromise seven of them. A muhimba Rubango of Ibumba is estimated to have had sixteen wives.

Women of a polygamous man would normally be from different clans, because marriages were one of the rare things that bonded together a very politically segmented society. A girl spent about a month in seclusion before marriage, to become well fed and instructed in home management. Another month also or more would be spent after marriage until she would be permitted to start work (okwarura). It was common to divorce if your husband or wife was barren, lazy, or had other bad traits (M M Edel, Ngologoza, Katebarirwe, and Wikipedia). Divorced people could remarry, however, the woman's family could expect less bride wealth next time. Disagreements that could be leading to divorce were first tackled by consultation of elders.

Settling disputes; this was a major role of elderly members of a clan the abakuru b’emiryango (Ngorogoza). Clansmen elected a lineage head on the criteria of character (truthful, brave, a war-leader) and power (a rich man, a medicine man, or a priest). Different lineage heads would gather and publicly discuss potential issues of wider concern. What lineage heads did not solve together could result in fighting between groups. The Bakiga were natural born-warriors (Wikipedia, Ngologoza).

Institutions of Governance; the basic institution of governance was a home/family. This was followed by clan elders Bakuru B’emiryango (Ngorogoza). These were influential and highly respected elders. There existed neither chiefs nor kings among the Bakiga. M M Edel referred to the social controls amongst the Bakiga as an ordered anarchy (either for lack of appreciating a culture not well comprehended by him or just being arrogant).  The legal system followed a similar order but also involved different clan elders. Edel refers to the Bakiga Legal procedure as action of the offended party whether to right an injury by retaliation or compel payment of an obligation.

Religion the Bakiga believed in God they called/call Ruhanga or Kazooba Nyamuhanga. They too had other gods for different purposes. For example the Nyabingi cult believed that their god was able to make them win wars and give them courage and strength in the agitation against colonialism, some believed that Emandwa would defend them against bad spirits, and other gods were for bumper harvests, good luck and others. Other religious practices included ordinary charms, magical practicing and divine practices (Ngorogoza, Turyahikayo-Rugyema,Murindwa Rutanga).

Medical Practice; the Bakiga had very wonderful ways of promoting good health. Some were preventive, corrective while others were curative. The common preventive measures were ample feeding and okushandaga (inoculation/administration of drugs through a skin incision). While good feeding ensured strength and vigor, Okushandaga was meant to confer immunity against a wide range of diseases including protecting a person from being charmed or struck by thunder. Surgery was a wide applied practice ranging from simple to the most complicated surgery as that of the brain for those whose sculls could crack during wars or mere accidents. There were living examples of the people who had undergone surgery survived until they died of old age in my village of Ibumba. There were two ladies who during their youth had been speared and the intestines gashed out. The doctors of the day trimmed and sterilized (Okwotera) small calabashes carefully stacked the intestines taking care not to strangulate them and pressed them back into their abdominal cavities. One of the ladies was a mother to Rwakabuga a musigyi of Nyakafura village and a church catechist, the other was a wife to Mpigika, son of Nturanabo the son of Mwate the son of Mbumburi of Macumu. Headache was surgically treated by puncturing one of the blood vessels on the facial area above the ear on which a small well trimmed sterilized gourd (engunga) would be stuck by the suction pressure resulting from the vacuum created by the expulsion of air by heat. Excessive bad blood causing headache would sucked into this vessel. Most of the curative drugs were derived from the herbs that treated a wide range of diseases. Remedies for poison were selectively and commonly administered (Okutanasya/vomiting in order to expel the ingested poison). They even had an antidote for excessive vomiting induced by such medications. Babies born prematurely could be incubated using millet bran until they could mature. Cuts would be treated with enyabarashana/Biden’s pilosae which could effectively arrest the bleeding. Urinary complications/Enzibe/possibly prostate cancer would effectively be treated with preparations from the Stinging nestle/ Ekicuriganyi. Bruises and fractures were treated/ okumunga either in the presence or absence of the patient as long as the area of the fracture was known. Stories of love portions were rife especially in polygamous settings to attract the close attention of the husband from other wives and women. A critical examination of the Bakiga medical practice could form a very vital foundation for relevant reliable basic medical care solutions.

Utilities; The Bakiga had a variety of equipment and utensils for various and different purposes, Granaries; (Ebitara and ebihumi) were for storing food items. Pots and calabashes and half calabashes; (Enyungu, Ebisisi & Enshare) were for fetching water and storing Omuramba and Bushera and vessels for drinking the same. Baskets; (Ebitukuru, Entete, and Banyoro) were for carrying food stuffs, acting as frames for sterilizing items like Ebishato (Okwotera) and the later for soaking sorghum in its preparation for fermentation. Trays; (Entara) were for winnowing sorghum other grains and cereals. Grinding stones were for processing grains into flour. Mortars and Pestles; (Eshekuro Nemihini) were for separating bran from grains and also preparing various forms of medicines. Mingling ladles; (Enyiko) were for mingling sorghum bread or millet bread or brewing (kugoya or kushigisha). Threshing ladles and sticks; (Ebihuzo Nemibando) these were used to thresh grains and cereals. Stools were for sitting on so were mats (Emishambi) for women. Double mats; (Ebirago) were both for sleeping on and served as blankets as well. Brewing vessels (Amato/Obwato {one}) were for preparing both the soft drink (Bushera and Omuramba). Drums, Harps, Flutes and horns ;( Engoma, Enanga, Emikuri and Enzamba) were used for entertainment and emergency alerting or calling the community for a cause. Spears, Bows &Arrows, Axes, Big Knives and small knives (Amacuumu, Obuta Nemwambi, Empasha/Empango, Emihoro ne Misyo) were used for defense, hunting, felling trees, cutting grass, slaughtering and peeling. Shields; (Engabo) were the protective gear during wars. Walking sticks; (Emihunda, Emango, and Enkoni) were used for support, grazing and at times defense.

Education; the Bakiga form of education was through observation and very, very highly hands on/practical. Most of the education was conducted through tale telling around fire places as they prepared and waited for their last meal of the day. The hands on education were carried out during the day as activities were being undertaken. Education was a highly gendered issue as the activities themselves. The girl child education was mainly undertaken by mothers and paternal aunts and elderly women, while as the boy child education was undertaken by the father, uncles and elderly men. For the very critical special skills, these used to be taught to very few serious and very careful individuals such included medical care, nursing, witchcraft, carpentry and others.

Inheritance; the male children could divide their fathers estate amongst themselves. It was normal for fathers to give some land to their daughters upon marriage as part of the assets (emihingizo) to accompany the daughters to their new married lives. This used to act as an asset start up (entandikwa) for the new family particularly when the boys' parents’ asset base was so lacking. At other times when the girls father either had fewer boys or had land in abundance.

Bakiga social life: The Bakiga were a highly social group of people. Quite often heads of families could prepare booze, call their neighbours, relatives and clans men and make merry. During such merry making times well groomed goat castrates would be slaughtered or even oxen at times and enjoyed as roasted/michomo washed down with the drinks blended with honey (Enturire). Such would be the same at traditional and cultural functions like give away ceremonies (Okuhingyira), Weddings (okutasya), grooming before and after the wedding (okwarika) and officially permitting the new weds to go out and start working (okwarura). All these activities were accompanied by singing (kuteera ekiziina) and dancing the real energy kikiga dance that really proved the life in them. These at times could be accompanied by okwevuga and kuteera emirengye. Wrestling was a common sport though most practiced by the males and especially the youths. Hunting was equally another enjoyable sport and a means of supplementing the diets. The youths' hide and seek game was also a very common sport. Playing the Flute, kuteera Enanga, Endingyiri and Engoma used to accompany many social activities both as a sport and for providing entertainment.